Tuesday, 19 January 2016

1. Introduction

1. Introduction

Safety, what do we think of the word and it’s variations. As a noun, a safe is some sort of vault or box that you keep your valuables in to keep them, well, safe... however, the definition we are looking at is being safe from harm. This matches with our aim to make sure that the consumers are safe from the harm of UV radiation even in the comforts of their home and are having financial safety while buying bulbs. UV radiation is emitted from the light bulbs, the very same thing which sunlight consists of, except that the UV is more concentrated. So does UV radiation cause cancer? Yes. In fact, most skin cancers are a direct result of exposure to the UV rays in sunlight. Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers tend to be found on sun-exposed parts of the body, and their occurrence is typically related to lifetime sun exposure. The risk of melanoma, a more serious but less common type of skin cancer, is also related to sun exposure, although perhaps not as strongly. Skin cancer has also been linked to exposure to some artificial sources of UV rays. Basal and squamous cell skin cancer: Many observational studies have found that basal and squamous cell skin cancers are linked to certain behaviors that put people in the sun, as well as a number of markers of sun exposure, such as:  Spending time in the sun for recreation (including going to the beach)  Spending a lot of time in the sun in a swimsuit. Living in an area with a high amount of sun. Having had serious sunburns in the past (with more sunburns linked to a higher risk)  Having signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses (rough skin patches that can be precancerous), and solar elastosis (thickened, dry, wrinkled skin caused by sun exposure) on the neck Melanoma: Observational studies have also found links between certain behaviors and markers of sun exposure and melanoma of the skin, including:  Activities that lead to “intermittent sun exposure,” like sunbathing, water sports, and taking vacations in sunny places  Previous sunburns  Signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses, and solar elastosis Other cancers: Because UV radiation does not penetrate deeply into the body, it would not be expected to cause cancer in internal organs, and most research has not found such links. However, some studies have shown possible links to some other cancers, including:  Merkel cell carcinoma (a less common type of skin cancer)  Cancer of the lip  Some types of eye cancer, such as melanoma of the eye and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva.
In our experiment, the only independent variable is the light bulb, whilst the dependent variables are, the device used to measure the light intensity and UV, the distance from the light bulb and the Device, the location, the

amount of omnipresent light, the amount of radiation , the size of the light bulb.
, the brand of the light bulb, the room must be dark and no other light sources must be present, and the distance from the sensor and the light bulb. The only control variable being the cupboard.



Hypothesis :
Based research by Klein, Sarye, Dowdy and Werth, an anecdotal case report in the early eighties suggested that fluorescent light could induce rashes in patients with SLE [30]. This observation was substantiated in 1985, when Cole et al demonstrated that commercially available fluorescent lamps emitted significant levels of UVB and UVC. Of note, an acrylic diffuser, but not a glass envelope, blocked transmission of all short-wave UVR [31]. These results proved to be clinically relevant in 1992, when Rihner and McGrath H Jr. established that photosensitive SLE patients reported worsening rash, arthritis, and fatigue after exposure to fluorescent light. These same patients, however, denied symptoms when the fluorescent lamps were covered with an acrylic diffuser [32]. Thus is appeared that naked fluorescent bulbs could cause significant flaring of cutaneous and systemic LE, unless UV transmission was blocked with an acrylic diffuser.
In 2004, Sayre et al made quantitative measurements of UV emission from fluorescent light bulbs. He tested the bulbs commonly used at home and in the workplace, including unshielded tube lamps and energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). His results confirmed the observations made previously. He found that all emitted appreciable levels of UVA and UVB, and several even emitted UVC [28].
Recently, Sayre’s group tested several commonly used, commercially available, enveloped compact fluorescent bulbs. They sought to determine which emitted the least UVR and would therefore be safest for photosensitive patients. They found that nearly all of the bulbs emitted UVB and UVA2, despite being covered with a glass envelope. The exceptions were two Philips “Bug-A-Way” bulbs, which did not emit any detectable short-wave UVR. However, these bulbs emit a yellow light, which is not aesthetically pleasing. The remaining bulbs exhibited a surprising degree of variation in the amount of UV emitted; assuming eight hours of exposure per day, the total UV dose (250–400 nm) ranged from 73 to 634 mJ/cm2, while the UVB-only dose (290–320) ranged from 0.01 to 15 mJ/cm2. Under these conditions, it would take between eight days and six months to receive 1 SED, depending on the particular bulb. These results indicate that even within the same class of bulbs, there are sufficient differences between specific models that patients may benefit from using those that have been shown to emit the lowest levels of UVR [Klein et al, submitted for publication]. Therefore, we would like to verify this conclusion.


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